Course Objectives#
Chapter 1: Measurements in Chemistry

** Lecture Outline**

**Source –** B,L,B

** **__chapters__

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I. Basic Concepts

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A) Unit Dimensional Analysis Chap. 1: 1.4, 1.5, 1.6

B) Uncertainty in Measurements-Statistical Analysis

1. Average values

2. Significant digits

3. Root-mean-square deviations

4. Linear least-squares fitting

II. **Atoms, Molecules and Ions** Chap. 2: all sections

A) Atoms

1. Elementary structure

a. atomic number

b. atomic mass

2. Properties of electrons

3. Periodic properties

a. structure of the table

b. generalizations

B) **Molecules and Ions**

1. Cations

2. Anions

3. Nomenclature of compounds

a. salts

b. acids

c. non-ionic and non-organic

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EXAM 1

III. **Stoichiometry** Chap. 3: all sections

A) Chemical composition Chap. 4: all sections

1. Atomic weights, formula weights, and molecular weights

2. Percent composition

3. Empirical formulae

B) Chemical Equations

1. Balancing equations

2. Some reaction types

a. combustion reactions with O_{2}

b. ionization reactions with H_{2}O

c. ionic reactions: neutralization and precipitation

C) Mass relationships from chemical equations

1. Mass-mass problems

2. Limiting reagent

D) Solution Concentration Measures

1. Molarity

2. Dilution

3. Titration

IV. **Properties of Gases** Chap. 10: all sections

A. Ideal Gas Laws

1. Boyle’s approximation

2. Charles’ approximation

3. Combined approximation

4. Avagodro’s hypothesis

5. The ideal gas equation of state

6. Dalton’s approximation of partial pressures

B) Kinetic theory of Gases

1. Derivation of the average kinetic energy of a gas

2. The Boltzmann distribution

3. Average speeds and average square speeds

4. Graham’s law of diffusion

C) Non-ideal Gases—The van der Waals Equation of State

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EXAM 2

V. **Energetics of Chemical reactions-Thermochemistry** Chap. 5: all sections

A) Units of energy

B) Types of energy and work

C) The first law of thermodynamics

D) Standard molar heats of formation-enthalpy

E) Heats of reaction

1. from standard molar heats of formation

2. from Hess’ law calculations

F) Measurement of energy changes

1. heat capacities

2. example calculations

G) Spontaneity in chemical processes-Gibbs Free Energy

VI. **Electronic Structure of Atoms** Chap. 6,7: all sections

A) Deviations from classical theory

1. spectra

2. existence of the Rutherford Atom

3. diffraction of electrons

B) Electromagnetic theory

C) Bohr model of the hydrogen atom

1. mathematical derivation of the model

2. quantum states and line spectra

D) Wave mechanics

1. De Broglie wavelength

2. matter waves and the uncertainty principle

E) Atomic Orbitals

1. quantum number and atomic states

2. description of the atomic orbital

VII. **Periodic Relationships Among the Elements **

A) Energies of orbitals in many-electron atoms

1. effective charge

2. screening rules

3. approximate ordering of orbital energies

B) Electron spin-Pauli Exclusion Principle

C) Electron configurations

1. Hund’s Rule

2. structure of the periodic table

D) Trends in the Periodic table

1. atomic size

2. ionization energy

3. electron affinity

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EXAM 3

VIII. **Chemical Bonding** Chap. 8:

A) Ionic bonds

1. Lewis symbols for ions

2. sizes of ions

B) Covalent bonds

1. Lewis structures

2. electron promotion

3. resonance forms

4. bond energies

a. measurement of bond energy

b. calculation of heats of reaction

5. electronegativities

IX. **Molecular Orbitals and Molecular geometry** Chap. 9: all sections

A) Valence shell electron pair repulsion models

B) hybrid orbitals

1. sp hybrids

2. sp^{2} hybrids

3. sp^{3} hybrids

4. dsp^{3} hybrids

C) Molecular orbital theory

1. combination of atomic orbitals to form molecular orbitals

2. ordering of molecular orbitals

3. electron configurations for small molecules

a. bond order

b. number of unpaired electrons

Course Expectations
**Office Hrs:** Posted. Office: 107 McCoy Engineering phone: 397-4187, randal.hallford@mwsu.edu

**Web**: http://faculty.mwsu.edu/chemistry/randal.hallford

**Textbook:** Mandatory: *Chemistry: The Central Science. Brown, LeMay, Bursten*, 11^{th} ed.

**Supplemental Material: **Library reference materials, Student Solutions Guide.

**Prerequisite: **enrollment in Math 1233 (College Algebra) and High School Chemistry or 1103/1203 (introduction to Chemistry)

Exam 1 chapters 1,2 Matter, Atoms and Molecules

Exam 2 chapters 3,4,10 Stoichiometry, Reactions, Gases

Exam 3 chapters 5,6,7 Thermochem, Electronics, Periodic Prop.

Exam 4 chapters 8,9 Bonding, Bonding Theories and Geometry

Final Exam comprehensive ACS exam.